Vincent P. O'Hara's book, the Struggle for the Middle Sea was an interesting study of the naval campaigns of the British, Italian, German, American, French and other nations in the Mediterranean.
Several things jumped out that I was ignorant of. The Italians were responsible for nearly all the logistics between Europe and Tunisia in support of the North African land war. O'Hara praises the Italian Navy for this effort as they shouldered it largely on their own and were exceptionally effective in getting men, munitions and supplies to the Afrika Korps and the Italian Armies in Africa. The losses in this logistical campaign of freighters and merchants were light.
The Italian Navy had multiple battleships and heavy cruisers which caused the British Navy anguish and concern in the middle Mediterranean. The British held superiority on the eastern side, but the possibility of the Italian Navy sailing out - as they did numerous times - to challenge the convoys to Malta and Alexandria meant that the British shipped their supplies to North Africa via the Cape and the Suez Canal. Essentially the Italian Navy caused the British to go around Africa rather than across Sicily.
The Italians were not a match in night fighting or intelligence for the British. When there was a show down during a night action the British were all over the Italians. During the day it was more of an even match even though the Italian Admirals were hamstrung by orders which were did not allow much in the way of aggressive action.
Another problem for the Italian Navy was that the Italian Air Force was ineffective. It gave poor intelligence, reconn and when it was asked to attack shipping it did a poor job. When the German Air Force became heavily involved in the Mediterranean a lot of allied shipping ended up on the bottom of the ocean. By the end of the war in the Mediterranean more shipping was sunk by air superiority than by ship borne action.
Another area that surprised me was that the Italian Navy was constantly short of oil, to the point where actions were canceled for lack of fuel. German was precious about the fuel supply and did not let Italy have any. Italy had to procure its own fuel and as a consequence the big ships never had enough.
The British did not have the ships or the power to drive the Italian Navy from the Mediterranean even though the British slowly established ascendancy in the air and enough of a problem in numerous actions for the Italians that they were losing ships at an unsustainable rate.
Once Italy surrendered several ships came over to the allies, though many were taken by the Germans and pressed into the German Navy. The big difference is the United States. It started sending large convoys of sixty merchant ships at a time through the Straits of Gibraltar to support the actions in Africa and Italy.
Compare that number to the British who's convoys to Malta in 1940 were averaging three merchant ships. Even if Italy had remained an axis Navy during 1943 it would have been obliterated by the increasing Naval and Air power of the British and United States.
The latter being the naval and air power in the Mediterranean after the war, and to this day.
The photo at the top is of an Italian Cruiser, the Bartolomeo Colleoni, that was sunk in an action by HMAS Sydney and British destroyers during an engagement off Cape Scada in the Mediterranean.
Phoenix Eats Out
is the restaurant review site for Phoenix
and Old Town Scottsdale
which lists the modernist and contemporary restaurants, taverns and bars in the greater Phoenix area.
This is the list of the most popular restaurants pages from phoenixeatsout.com that have been viewed the most;
My personal favourite restaurants in Phoenix are AZ88
, Humble Pie
, Orange Table
, The Vig
and others coming close behind. View the complete list with the photo-journalistic style images on phoenixeatsout.com
Arizona is an outdoor state and has lots of hiking in the city and around the state. Phoenix is unusual for most cities in having several large mountains in the center of the city with great hiking. Anyone who comes to Phoenix has to do the Echo Canyon trail on Camelback
and the Summit Hike on Squaw Peak
or Piesta Peak. The views of the city, suburbs and surrounding mountains are wonderful from Camelback and Piesta Peak.
For more experienced hikers there is the McDowell Mountains in North Scottsdale that has several difficult and strenuous hikes in Tom's Thumb
and Bell Pass
. Alternatively, you can hike the highest mountain in Arizona. At 12,600 feet Humphrey's Peak
is a long and difficult hike.
Between 2004 and 2009 this site, southsearepublic.org
, was a constitutional blog based on scoop which focused on Australian and global constitutional issues.
One of the strongest aspects of it was the development of constitutions by those involved in the blog. These constitutions are the outcome:
The constitutions were built using principles from Montesquieu's separation of powers, the enlightnment's universal political rights and the ancient Athenian technology of sortition and choice by lot.
South Sea Republic started in 2004 as an Australian constitutional blog in 2004 based on scoop software. It was an immigrative outgrowth of Kuro5hin. The archives for each year since then;
The articles are ordered by views.
I am an Australian living in the United States as a permanent resident.
I am a software developer by trade and mostly work in Java and jump between middleware and front end.
I originally worked in the New York area of the United States in telecommunications before moving to Washington DC and
working in a mix of telecommunications, energy and ITS. I started my own software company before heading out to
Arizona and working with Shutterfly. Since then I have joined a startup in the Phoenix area and am thoroughly enjoying myself.
I do a lot of photography which I post on this website, but also on flickr. I have a photo-journalistic website which lists
the modernist and contemporary restaurants in phoenix. I have a site on the Australian Flying Corps [AFC]
which has been around since the 1990s and which I unfortunately
lost the .org URL to during a life event; however, it is under the www.australianflyingcorps.com
The AFC website has gone through several iterations since the 90s and the two most recent are Australian Flying Corps Archives(2004-2002)
Australian Flying Corps Archives(2002-1999)
which are good places to start.