Niall Barr's Pendulum of War is on the Battle of El Alamein in North Africa in World War II. In modern British history this is the battle that swung the momentum of World War II to the allies. Along with Stalingrad and Guadalcanal it is seen as a turning point.
In British political terms it was probably necessary as the industrial and military might of the United States was starting to turn its attention to North Africa and Churchill needed some victory to lay a claim to British military competency.
Barr divides the battle into three phases. Rommel's initial advance against the British, Auchinleck's counter attack offensive and finally Montgomery's successful offensive which is what the battle is known for in British military history.
Rommel's initial success on the advance to Cairo was due to the high quality of his armoured and mechanized troops. Their tanks were superior to the British tanks and the anti-tank guns the British, Australian, New Zealand, South African and Indian forces had.
The anti-tank guns that they British had were only good at very short range and usually required the British to setup traps so that German tanks would literally go past the guns before they fired into the weakly armoured sides and rear of the tanks. With better guns and tanks starting to arrive during the second and third battles it gave the British better chances against the German armour.
One of Rommels tactics was to ruthlessly counter-attack after any Allied advance against his position. One of the problems the British had was that they would advance at night with infantry after clearing a path through the minefields. The infantry would get established, but the tanks and anti-tank guns would not get into place before morning.
When Rommel's tanks and mechanized infantry inevitably counter-attacked the next morning the British infantry would be isolated without armour and anti-tank gun support and either be annihilated or be forced to surrender. The infantry did not like this and often blamed the British tanks for being to slow and not coming forward to support them.
Under Montgomery this was overcome by increased training for the next offensive and by centralized artillery support. Both of these started under Auchinleck but Montgomery did manage to hold off Churchill's impatience until the forces were fully trained as integrated units. When the advances were made in the third battle of El Alamein the infantry was well supported by tank and anti-tank guns as well as a powerful centralized artillery that rained shells down on any counter attack attempts.
Rommel had his own difficulties. He was highly aggressive and advanced multiple times when he should not have but by the Battle of El Alamein he was running out of tanks, German infantry and worse petrol and ammunition.
After the advance from Tobruk he managed to replenish from the British ammunition and supply dumps that he captured along the way which provided him with shells and petrol. After the defeat at the first battle of El Alamein this essentially ran out. During the third battle he was unable to counter attack due to lack of fuel. There was not even enough for his German and Italian armies to retreat as a mechanized force.
Phoenix Eats Out
is the restaurant review site for Phoenix
and Old Town Scottsdale
which lists the modernist and contemporary restaurants, taverns and bars in the greater Phoenix area.
This is the list of the most popular restaurants pages from phoenixeatsout.com that have been viewed the most;
My personal favourite restaurants in Phoenix are AZ88
, Humble Pie
, Orange Table
, The Vig
and others coming close behind. View the complete list with the photo-journalistic style images on phoenixeatsout.com
Arizona is an outdoor state and has lots of hiking in the city and around the state. Phoenix is unusual for most cities in having several large mountains in the center of the city with great hiking. Anyone who comes to Phoenix has to do the Echo Canyon trail on Camelback
and the Summit Hike on Squaw Peak
or Piesta Peak. The views of the city, suburbs and surrounding mountains are wonderful from Camelback and Piesta Peak.
For more experienced hikers there is the McDowell Mountains in North Scottsdale that has several difficult and strenuous hikes in Tom's Thumb
and Bell Pass
. Alternatively, you can hike the highest mountain in Arizona. At 12,600 feet Humphrey's Peak
is a long and difficult hike.
Between 2004 and 2009 this site, southsearepublic.org
, was a constitutional blog based on scoop which focused on Australian and global constitutional issues.
One of the strongest aspects of it was the development of constitutions by those involved in the blog. These constitutions are the outcome:
The constitutions were built using principles from Montesquieu's separation of powers, the enlightnment's universal political rights and the ancient Athenian technology of sortition and choice by lot.
South Sea Republic started in 2004 as an Australian constitutional blog in 2004 based on scoop software. It was an immigrative outgrowth of Kuro5hin. The archives for each year since then;
The articles are ordered by views.
I am an Australian living in the United States as a permanent resident.
I am a software developer by trade and mostly work in Java and jump between middleware and front end.
I originally worked in the New York area of the United States in telecommunications before moving to Washington DC and
working in a mix of telecommunications, energy and ITS. I started my own software company before heading out to
Arizona and working with Shutterfly. Since then I have joined a startup in the Phoenix area and am thoroughly enjoying myself.
I do a lot of photography which I post on this website, but also on flickr. I have a photo-journalistic website which lists
the modernist and contemporary restaurants in phoenix. I have a site on the Australian Flying Corps [AFC]
which has been around since the 1990s and which I unfortunately
lost the .org URL to during a life event; however, it is under the www.australianflyingcorps.com
The AFC website has gone through several iterations since the 90s and the two most recent are Australian Flying Corps Archives(2004-2002)
Australian Flying Corps Archives(2002-1999)
which are good places to start.