One of the problem the British tanks faced when fighting the Afrika Korps was their out dated and obsolete anti tank guns that were mounted on the Crusaders and were handed out to the army regiments.
The British two pounder gun was short ranged and could not fire explosive rounds which made it useless against German anti-tank screens that included the Pak38 and the 88mm anti tank gun. NIall Barr writes:
... by 1941, British tank crews could only effectively engage German tanks at 500 yards range while the German tank crews in Mk IIIs could engage at ranges up to 1,000 yards.
Indeed the two pounder had never really been suitable as a tank mounted weapon because it was not a dual purpose gun. The small bore gun didn't allow the use of an effective high explosive shell.
British tank designers, having absorbed the importance of mobility and firing on the move, mounted the gun so that it was perfectly adapted for firing on the move, but when the tank stopped to fire, the mount remained less steady than a fixed mount designed to be fired at rest.
As a consequence the British used to charge the German tanks in the hopes of getting close where their little gun could be effective and the German tanks would then retreat behind an anti-tank gun screen which would knock the British tanks out.
The British tanks could not engage the anti-tank screen with high explosive shell and would have to continue to charge in the hope of wiping out the gun crews with machine gun fire.
The German anti-tank guns were too well camouflaged and placed for that. As a consequence the British tank crews took heavy and unnecessary losses as their equipment was not up to challenging the German tanks.
As America entered the war it started supplying the British Eighth Army with tanks. One of those was the Grant tank. This was on the same tank base as the Sherman but more importantly it had a large 75mm gun mounted in a sponson on the side of the hull.
There were flaws with the Grant; it was a tall tank that could not go hull down with the 75 mm gun, and the sponson had a limited range of freedom, however it was a large advance over the Crusader as British tank crews could shell German anti-tank positions with high explosive rounds and could duke it out at long range with the German tanks.
There were some other interesting aspects to the Grant. American industry was starting to churn out these M3 based tanks and consequently there were no spare parts. Just complete tanks. The British had issues repairing tanks because of this.
Another problem was that the American armour piercing shell was not hard enough to pierce German armour. The British ended up using captured German 75mm rounds and capping the American shells with the German rounds to make an effective armour piercing round.
Phoenix Eats Out
is the restaurant review site for Phoenix
and Old Town Scottsdale
which lists the modernist and contemporary restaurants, taverns and bars in the greater Phoenix area.
This is the list of the most popular restaurants pages from phoenixeatsout.com that have been viewed the most;
My personal favourite restaurants in Phoenix are AZ88
, Humble Pie
, Orange Table
, The Vig
and others coming close behind. View the complete list with the photo-journalistic style images on phoenixeatsout.com
Arizona is an outdoor state and has lots of hiking in the city and around the state. Phoenix is unusual for most cities in having several large mountains in the center of the city with great hiking. Anyone who comes to Phoenix has to do the Echo Canyon trail on Camelback
and the Summit Hike on Squaw Peak
or Piesta Peak. The views of the city, suburbs and surrounding mountains are wonderful from Camelback and Piesta Peak.
For more experienced hikers there is the McDowell Mountains in North Scottsdale that has several difficult and strenuous hikes in Tom's Thumb
and Bell Pass
. Alternatively, you can hike the highest mountain in Arizona. At 12,600 feet Humphrey's Peak
is a long and difficult hike.
Between 2004 and 2009 this site, southsearepublic.org
, was a constitutional blog based on scoop which focused on Australian and global constitutional issues.
One of the strongest aspects of it was the development of constitutions by those involved in the blog. These constitutions are the outcome:
The constitutions were built using principles from Montesquieu's separation of powers, the enlightnment's universal political rights and the ancient Athenian technology of sortition and choice by lot.
South Sea Republic started in 2004 as an Australian constitutional blog in 2004 based on scoop software. It was an immigrative outgrowth of Kuro5hin. The archives for each year since then;
The articles are ordered by views.
I am an Australian living in the United States as a permanent resident.
I am a software developer by trade and mostly work in Java and jump between middleware and front end.
I originally worked in the New York area of the United States in telecommunications before moving to Washington DC and
working in a mix of telecommunications, energy and ITS. I started my own software company before heading out to
Arizona and working with Shutterfly. Since then I have joined a startup in the Phoenix area and am thoroughly enjoying myself.
I do a lot of photography which I post on this website, but also on flickr. I have a photo-journalistic website which lists
the modernist and contemporary restaurants in phoenix. I have a site on the Australian Flying Corps [AFC]
which has been around since the 1990s and which I unfortunately
lost the .org URL to during a life event; however, it is under the www.australianflyingcorps.com
The AFC website has gone through several iterations since the 90s and the two most recent are Australian Flying Corps Archives(2004-2002)
Australian Flying Corps Archives(2002-1999)
which are good places to start.