The Roman form of naming was pretty logical and limited. A name was made up of the praenomen, the nomen and the cognomen. The nearest analogies today are that the praenomen was the personal or christian name, the nomen was the tribe/clan name and the cognomen was the surname within the tribe/clan.
So to use some well known examples; Marcus Tullius Cicero. The praenomen
for Cicero, of which there were about a thousand all up, was Marcus. Tullius was Cicero's family or clan name - the nomen
. Which could be traced back to Regal Rome. The cognomen
was often a common word, like rabbit, or a plant etc - Cicero means chickpea. In the ribald rhetoric of Roman politics the cognomen was often a source of mockery or insinuation. The closest anglicized version of Cicero's name is Marcus Cicero of the house of Tullius.
The Romans also added names, called agnomens
, to the end of their formal name to denote triumphs. A good example is Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus. Africanus was added to his name (by himself) in honor, and reminder, of his defeat of the Carthaginians.
Another example of the complexity of Roman names is Julius Caesar, the first dictator for life, and Augustus, the first emperor of Rome. The Roman name for Caesar was Gaius Julius Caesar. Augustus was his adopted son through Julius Caesar's will; but Augustus was born Gaius Octavius. Not all Romans had a cognomen. Probably the anglic equivalent of not having a middle name I guess ... (I don't have a middle name) and seen as unusual.
Augustus' father, after his praetorship, put down a slave revolt in Thurii. As a result he took the honorific (like Scipio did with Africanus) which was added to his name and automatically to his sons'. So the future Augustus became Gaius Octavius Thurinus.
Years later he was named in Julius Caesar's will as his heir, so the future Augustus became Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus which denoted he was now the son of Caesar but from the Octavius family/clan/tribe. Augustus, as we know him today, is an honorific which was granted by the Roman Senate, which rather than being a constitutional position, is a religious one.
One of the confusing parts of Roman names is that there were so few praemonens. To make it more difficult for historians, it seems the first son always took the praenomen of their father. The lex repetundarum
which was a judicial roll, required that juror's names be taken down in the form: father, tribe and cognomen. Presumably the taking down of the father's name was due to the Roman organisational form of the paterfamilias
which gave the father complete sovereignty over his family and property. Rome was a male dominated world.
Phoenix Eats Out
is the restaurant review site for Phoenix
and Old Town Scottsdale
which lists the modernist and contemporary restaurants, taverns and bars in the greater Phoenix area.
This is the list of the most popular restaurants pages from phoenixeatsout.com that have been viewed the most;
My personal favourite restaurants in Phoenix are AZ88
, Humble Pie
, Orange Table
, The Vig
and others coming close behind. View the complete list with the photo-journalistic style images on phoenixeatsout.com
Arizona is an outdoor state and has lots of hiking in the city and around the state. Phoenix is unusual for most cities in having several large mountains in the center of the city with great hiking. Anyone who comes to Phoenix has to do the Echo Canyon trail on Camelback
and the Summit Hike on Squaw Peak
or Piesta Peak. The views of the city, suburbs and surrounding mountains are wonderful from Camelback and Piesta Peak.
For more experienced hikers there is the McDowell Mountains in North Scottsdale that has several difficult and strenuous hikes in Tom's Thumb
and Bell Pass
. Alternatively, you can hike the highest mountain in Arizona. At 12,600 feet Humphrey's Peak
is a long and difficult hike.
Between 2004 and 2009 this site, southsearepublic.org
, was a constitutional blog based on scoop which focused on Australian and global constitutional issues.
One of the strongest aspects of it was the development of constitutions by those involved in the blog. These constitutions are the outcome:
The constitutions were built using principles from Montesquieu's separation of powers, the enlightnment's universal political rights and the ancient Athenian technology of sortition and choice by lot.
South Sea Republic started in 2004 as an Australian constitutional blog in 2004 based on scoop software. It was an immigrative outgrowth of Kuro5hin. The archives for each year since then;
The articles are ordered by views.
I am an Australian living in the United States as a permanent resident.
I am a software developer by trade and mostly work in Java and jump between middleware and front end.
I originally worked in the New York area of the United States in telecommunications before moving to Washington DC and
working in a mix of telecommunications, energy and ITS. I started my own software company before heading out to
Arizona and working with Shutterfly. Since then I have joined a startup in the Phoenix area and am thoroughly enjoying myself.
I do a lot of photography which I post on this website, but also on flickr. I have a photo-journalistic website which lists
the modernist and contemporary restaurants in phoenix. I have a site on the Australian Flying Corps [AFC]
which has been around since the 1990s and which I unfortunately
lost the .org URL to during a life event; however, it is under the www.australianflyingcorps.com
The AFC website has gone through several iterations since the 90s and the two most recent are Australian Flying Corps Archives(2004-2002)
Australian Flying Corps Archives(2002-1999)
which are good places to start.