Carthage was one of many cities founded by the Phoenicians in approximately 800 BC. Like Rome, it had a Republican (non-regal) Constitution, which, as described by Aristotle, was a mixed one, with a dominant aristocracy and some oligarchic and democratic leanings.
The Phoenicians came from modern-day Turkey, Syria and Palestine. They were a maritime trading people, possibly because of the poor quality of soil in their native land.
They established colonies, towns and cities across the Mediterranean including the north African coastline, and Spain. it appears their colonisation extended to the Atlantic coast of Africa and Spain.
Carthage was founded by the Phoenician city of Tyrria. In a very fertile part of North Africa (modern-day Tunisia) with a dominating strategic position
. Eventually Carthage lost contact with Tyrria as its own power grew, but also because the Phoenicians were pressed by the Asiatic empires of Assyria, Babylon, Egypt and Persia.
Like Rome, Carthage came to dominate the Punic cities through a mix of military might, colonisation and equitable treaties. The Carthaginians also fought nearly constantly against the Greeks in Sicily. Which would ultimately lead to the First Punic War with Rome.
H.H. Scullard speculates that Carthage was founded a republic so as not to encourage the idea that it was disloyal to the Phoenician monarchs.
The Carthaginians are also considered to have an excellent form of government, which differs from that of any other state in several respects, though it is in some very like the Spartan.
Indeed, all three states - the Spartan, the Cretan, and the Carthaginian - nearly resemble one another, and are very different from any others. Many of the Carthaginian institutions are excellent.
The superiority of their constitution is proved by the fact that the common people remain loyal to the constitution.
The Carthaginians have never had any rebellion worth speaking of, and have never been under the rule of a tyrant.
Carthage had a Senate of Three Hundred of which there was a Council of Thirty chosen from the Senate, and as part of the thirty, were included two popularly elected judges called Suffetes
. The judges were mainly focused on civil, rather than martial affairs and were elected annually by an assemblic body.
The popular body voted on legislation and policies, but only when the Senate and Council could not reach agreement - such that the popular will became a tie-breaker.
There was also a Council of One Hundred and Four which was purely judicial in focus and was chosen from the Senate. This body was intended to act as check and balance on any tyranny flowing from the other magistracies. It was very close to separation of powers between executive and judicial - but like Rome, tyranny was a real fear, probably because these systems despite the checks and attempts at political balance were often based on arbitrary power.
The Council of One Hundred and Four was appointed, rather than elected, with the appointments done by a group of five magistrates - the Pentarchs. Scullard writes that this led to corruption of the judicial powers until Hannibal flushed out the pentarchs and judges.
H.H. Scullard writes
The effective government was thus in the hands of an oligarchy of nobles. But it is uncertain how far they formed an aristocracy of birth or of wealth, how far they closed ranks against other aspirants to office, and whether their interests were commercial or agricultural.
Apparently most of what is known about Carthage comes from Roman or Greek writings, which are biased, or from modern archeology. Despite being an Empire and fighting Rome near to defeat through three very long wars it left little mark on the world that was permanent.
Phoenix Eats Out
is the restaurant review site for Phoenix
and Old Town Scottsdale
which lists the modernist and contemporary restaurants, taverns and bars in the greater Phoenix area.
This is the list of the most popular restaurants pages from phoenixeatsout.com that have been viewed the most;
My personal favourite restaurants in Phoenix are AZ88
, Humble Pie
, Orange Table
, The Vig
and others coming close behind. View the complete list with the photo-journalistic style images on phoenixeatsout.com
Arizona is an outdoor state and has lots of hiking in the city and around the state. Phoenix is unusual for most cities in having several large mountains in the center of the city with great hiking. Anyone who comes to Phoenix has to do the Echo Canyon trail on Camelback
and the Summit Hike on Squaw Peak
or Piesta Peak. The views of the city, suburbs and surrounding mountains are wonderful from Camelback and Piesta Peak.
For more experienced hikers there is the McDowell Mountains in North Scottsdale that has several difficult and strenuous hikes in Tom's Thumb
and Bell Pass
. Alternatively, you can hike the highest mountain in Arizona. At 12,600 feet Humphrey's Peak
is a long and difficult hike.
Between 2004 and 2009 this site, southsearepublic.org
, was a constitutional blog based on scoop which focused on Australian and global constitutional issues.
One of the strongest aspects of it was the development of constitutions by those involved in the blog. These constitutions are the outcome:
The constitutions were built using principles from Montesquieu's separation of powers, the enlightnment's universal political rights and the ancient Athenian technology of sortition and choice by lot.
South Sea Republic started in 2004 as an Australian constitutional blog in 2004 based on scoop software. It was an immigrative outgrowth of Kuro5hin. The archives for each year since then;
The articles are ordered by views.
I am an Australian living in the United States as a permanent resident.
I am a software developer by trade and mostly work in Java and jump between middleware and front end.
I originally worked in the New York area of the United States in telecommunications before moving to Washington DC and
working in a mix of telecommunications, energy and ITS. I started my own software company before heading out to
Arizona and working with Shutterfly. Since then I have joined a startup in the Phoenix area and am thoroughly enjoying myself.
I do a lot of photography which I post on this website, but also on flickr. I have a photo-journalistic website which lists
the modernist and contemporary restaurants in phoenix. I have a site on the Australian Flying Corps [AFC]
which has been around since the 1990s and which I unfortunately
lost the .org URL to during a life event; however, it is under the www.australianflyingcorps.com
The AFC website has gone through several iterations since the 90s and the two most recent are Australian Flying Corps Archives(2004-2002)
Australian Flying Corps Archives(2002-1999)
which are good places to start.